- Girth large for the tree species with trunk hollowing
- Crown retrenchment and reiterative growth
- Dead wood in the canopy and often on the ground
- Split, broken and dead limbs
- Cavities, holes and rot sites; crevices in the bark
- Old wounds and scars; sap runs; loose and lost bark
- High number of interdependent wildlife species including fungi, epiphytes, invertebrates.